Department of Microbiology

Lung/Mycobacterial Research Advances

The following is a list of some of the accomplishments of the Department of Microbiology over the past 20 years. Since 1985, the department has had more than 300 scientific publications, most related to diagnosis, treatment, new drugs, and the genetics of drug resistance in mycobacteria. A summary of the major accomplishments and some related publications are
listed below.

Research Summary

I. Nomenclature/Taxonomy (the naming of species and determination of their relationships to other species)

1.The discovery, description, and naming (in collaboration with other national and international collaborators) of one new species of Nocardia and four new species and two biovariants (subspecies) of mycobacteria: (1-4)
Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis
Mycobacterium mucogenicum
Mycobacterium goodii
Mycobacterium wolinskyi
Mycobacterium immunogenum
Mycobacterium fortuitum
third biovariant sorbitol positive
Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant sorbitol negative
2.Description of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae biotype IV as a neonatal and genital tract pathogen.(5)
3.Description of first isolates of tetracycline and erythromycin resistant Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis. (33) . 4. New species Nocardia wallacei named in honor of Dr. Richard Wallace.

II. Molecular typing/DNA Fingerprinting (Genetic methods to study hospital outbreaks or multiple cultures from the same patient to see if the cultures are identical or different. Also can be used for rapid species identification by molecular methods.)

  1. Development of molecular typing methods for comparision of different strains of rapidly growing mycobacteria and M. avium complex, including the techniques of pulsed field gel electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction
    (PCR). (For examples of its use, see references 6-10.)
  2. Development of PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) for rapid species identification of Nocardia and rapidly growing mycobacteria. (This method currently used in our lab for identification to species of all cultures of Nocardia and both rapidly growing and slowly growing Mycobacteria.) We are one of the first laboratories to routinely utilize a nonsequencing PCR method for such identification. (For examples of its use, see references 11-13.)

III. Drug Resistance Mechanisms

  1. Description of the genetic mutation in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene responsible for resistance to clarithromycin in M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. avium, and M. intracelluare. (14-15)
  2. 2.Description of the genetic mutation in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene responsible for the development of resistance to amikacin in M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum. (Amikacin is an important injectable medicine for each of these species.) (16)
  3. 3.Characterization of the penicillinase that confers resistance to penicillin and related drugs (called BRO ß-lactamase) in Branhamella catarrhalis (a common lung pathogen in patients with chronic lung disease), and its earliest appearance among clinical strains in the United States. (17)
  4. 4.Characterization of ß-lactamases (enzymes that inactivate penicillins and related compounds) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nocardia, and rapidly growing mycobacteria. (18-20)

IV. Susceptibility Testing (Determination of whether a drug is likely to be useful and effective when given to a patient.)

  1. Recognition of the activity (potential clinical usefulness) of clarithromycin and other newer macrolides against rapidly growing and some slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial species, including against M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii, M. marinum, and M. haemophilum. (This drug is the antibiotic of choice for many of these species.) (21-22)
  2. Recognition of the activity of the new compound linezolid against Nocardia. (34)
  3. Recognition of the activity of linezolid against rapidly growing mycobacteria, especially against M. fortuitum and M. chelonae. (35)
  4. Recognition of the activity of the tetracycline related compounds, the glycylcyclines (tigecycline), against the rapidly growing mycobacteria. (23)
  5. Development (along with other committee members) of the first Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, CLSI, formerly National Committeee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) standard for susceptibility testing of Nocardia and nontuberculous mycobacteria. NCCLS M24-A, 2003

V. Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease

  1. Preparing the first (1990) and current (2007)second (1997) American Thoracic Society Statements on Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. These are the major United States guidelines regarding diagnosis and treatment of species such as M. avium complex (MAC), M. kansasii, and the rapidly growing mycobactera. (24)
  2. First and only description of treatment regimens for rifampin resistant M. kansasii. (25)
  3. First to recognize that multiple strains (different organisms), not just one, are routinely present in M. avium complex infection in nodular bronchiectasis. (26)
  4. Development of three times weekly treatment regimen currently recommended for treatment of pulmonary MAC and recognition that it was as effective as daily therapy. (27-28, 36)
  5. Development of the standard 3-drug macrolide containing regimens for treatment of pulmonary MAC. (29)
  6. The first treatment trials in the United States to show the efficacy of clarithromycin (above) for the treatment of pulmonary MAC. (30-31)
  7. Performance of the first and only clinical trial of clarithromycin for treatment of Mycobacterium chelonae, and establishment of clarithromycin (biaxin) as the drug of choice for this infection. (32)


  1. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Silcox VA, Tsukamura M, Nash DR, Steele LC, Steingrube VA, Smith J, Sumter G, Zhang Y, Blacklock Z: Clinical disease, drug susceptibility, and biochemical patterns of the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum. J. Infect. Dis. 163:598-603, 1991.
  2. Springer B, Böttger EC, Kirschner P, Wallace RJ Jr: Phylogeny of the Mycobacterium chelonae-like organism based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and proposal of Mycobacterium mucogenicum sp. nov. Intern. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:262-267, 1995.
  3. Ruimy R, Riegel P, Carlotti A, Boiron P, Bernardin G, Monteil H, Wallace RJ Jr, Christen R: Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis sp. nov., a new species of Nocardia which groups bacterial strains previously identified as Nocardia brasiliensis and associated with invasive diseases. Intern. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:259-264, 1996.
  4. Brown BA, Springer B, Steingrube VA, Wilson RW, Pfyffer GE, Garcia MJ, Menendez MC, Rodriguez-Salgado B, Jost KC Jr., Chiu SH, Onyi GO, Böttger EC, Wallace RJ Jr: Mycobacterium wolinskyi sp. nov. and Mycobacterium goodii sp. nov., two new rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium smegmatis and associated with human wound infections: a cooperative study from the International Working Group on Mycobacterial Taxonomy. Intern. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:1493-1511, 1999.
  5. Quentin R, Goudeau A, Wallace RJ Jr, Smith AL, Selander RK, Musser JM: Urogenital, maternal, and neonatal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae: Identification of unusually virulent serologically nontypable clone families and strong evidence for a new Haemophilus species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 136:1203-1209, 1990.
  6. Hector JSR, Pang Y, Mazurek GH, Zhang Y, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Large restriction fragment patterns of genomic Mycobacterium fortuitum DNA as strain-specific markers and their use in epidemiologic investigation of four nosocomial outbreaks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1250-1255, 1992.
  7. Mazurek GH, Hartman S, Zhang Y-S, Brown BA, Hector JSR, Murphy D, Wallace RJ Jr: Large DNA restriction fragment polymorphism in the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex: A potential epidemiologic tool. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:390-394, 1993.
  8. Maloney S, Welbel S, Daves B, Adams K, Becker S, Bland L, Arduino M, Wallace RJ Jr., Zhang Y, Buck G, Risch P, Jarvis W: Mycobacterium abscessus pseudoinfection traced to an automated endoscope washer: Utility of epidemiologic and laboratory investigation. J. Infect. Dis. 169:1166-1169, 1994.
  9. Zhang Y, Rajagopalan M, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR for comparison of Mycobacterium abscessus strains from nosocomial outbreaks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:3132-3139, 1997.
  10. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Griffith DE: Nosocomial outbreaks/pseudo-outbreaks caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 52:453-490, 1998.
  11. Steingrube VA, Gibson JL, Brown BA, Zhang Y, Wilson RW, Rajagopalan M, Wallace RJ Jr: PCR amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis of a 65-kilodalton heat shock protein gene sequence for taxonomic separation of rapidly growing mycobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:149-153, 1995.
  12. Steingrube, VA, Wilson RW, Brown BA, Jost KC Jr., Blacklock Z, Gibson JL, Wallace RJ Jr: Rapid identification of clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes, including Actinomadura, Gordonia, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella isolates, by DNA amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:817-822, 1997.
  13. Wilson RW, Steingrube VA, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Clinical application of PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis for rapid identification of aerobic actinomycete isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:148-152, 1998.
  14. Wallace RJ Jr., Meier A, Brown BA, Zhang Y, Sander P, Onyi GO, Böttger EC: Genetic basis for clarithromycin resistance among isolates of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1676-1681, 1996.
  15. Meier A, Heifets L, Wallace RJ Jr., Zhang Y, Brown BA, Sander P, Böttger EC: Molecular mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in Mycobacterium avium: observation of multiple 23S rDNA mutations in a clonal population. J. Infect. Dis. 174:354-360, 1996.
  16. Prammananan T, Sander P, Brown BA, Frischkorn K, Onyi GO, Zhang Y, Böttger EC, Wallace RJ Jr: A single 16S ribosomal RNA substitution is responsible for resistance to amikacin and other 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides in Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae. J. Infect Dis. 177:1573-1581, 1998.
  17. Wallace RJ Jr, Steingrube VA, Nash DR, Hollis D, Flanagan C, Brown BA, Labidi A, Weaver R: BRO ß-Lactamases of Branhamella catarrhalis and subgenus Moraxella, including evidence for chromosomal ß-lactamase transfer by conjugation in B. catarrhalis, M. nonliquefaciens, and M. lacunata. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1845-1854, 1989.
  18. Zhang Y, Steingrube VA, Wallace RJ Jr: ß-lactamase Inhibitors and the inducibility of the beta-lactamase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am Rev. Respir. Dis. 145:657-660, 1992.
  19. Zhang Y, Wallace RJ Jr, Steingrube VA, Brown BA, Nash DR, Silcox VA, Tsukamura M: Isoelectric focusing patterns of ß-lactamases in the rapidly growing Mycobacteria. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 73:337-344, 1992.
  20. Steingrube VA, Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Zhang Y, Steele LC, Young G, Nash DR: Partial characterization of Nocardia farcinica ß-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1850-1855, 1993.
  21. Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Onyi G, DeRosas V, Wallace RJ III: Activities of four macrolides including clarithromycin against Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium chelonae-like organisms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:180-184, 1992.
  22. Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Onyi G: Activities of clarithromycin against eight slowly growing species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, determined by using a broth microdilution MIC system. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:1987-1990, 1992.
  23. Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr., Onyi GO: Activities of the glycylcyclines N, N- dimethylglycylamido-minocycline and N, N-dimethylglycylamido-6-demethyl-6- deoxytetracycline against Nocardia spp. and tetracycline-resistant isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:874-878, 1996.
  24. Wallace RJ Jr., Cook JL, Glassroth J, Griffith DE, Olivier KN, Gordin F: Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. American Thoracic Society Statement. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 156:S1-S25, 1997.
  25. Wallace RJ Jr, Dunbar D, Brown BA, Onyi G, Dunlap R, Ahn CH, Murphy D: Rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium kansasii. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18:736-743, 1994.
  26. Wallace RJ Jr, Zhang Y, Brown BA, Dawson D, Murphy DT, Wilson R, Griffith DE: Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium complex infections in patients with nodular bronchiectasis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 158:1235-1244, 1998.
  27. Griffith DE, Brown BA, Murphy DT, Girard WM, Couch L, Wallace RJ Jr: Initial (6-month) results of three-times-weekly azithromycin in treatment regimens for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus - negative patients. J. Infect. Dis. 178:121-126, 1998.
  28. Griffith DE, Brown BA, Cegielski P, Murphy DT, Wallace RJ Jr: Early results (at 6 months) with intermittent clarithromycin-including regimens for lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:288-292, 2000.
  29. Griffith DE, Wallace RJ Jr: Treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in non-acuired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the era of the newer macrolides and rifabutin. Am. J. Med. 102:22-27, 1997.
  30. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Murphy DT, Onyi GO, Steingrube VA, Mazurek GH: Initial clarithromycin monotherapy for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease. Amer. Rev. Resp. Dis. 149:1335-1341, 1994.
  31. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Murphy DT: Clarithromycin regimens for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex - the first 50 patients. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 153:1766-1772, 1996.
  32. Wallace RJ Jr, Tanner D, Brennan PJ, Brown BA: Clinical trial of clarithromycin for cutaneous (disseminated) infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae. Ann. Intern. Med. 119:482-486, 1993.
  33. Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Flanagan CW, Wilson RW, Luman JL, Redditt SD: Tetracycline and erythromycin resistance among clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1631-1633, 1989.
  34. Brown BA, Ward SC, Crist CJ, Mann LB, Wilson RW, Wallace RJ Jr: In vitro activities of linezolid against multiple Nocardia species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:1295-1297, 2001.
  35. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Ward SC, Crist CJ, Mann LB, Wilson RW: Activities of linezolid against rapidly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:764-767, 2001.
  36. Moore JS, Christensen M, Wilson RW, Wallace RJ Jr, Zhang Y, Nash DR, Shelton B: Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: Involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 61:205-213, March/April 2000.
  37. Green SL, Lifland BD, Bouley DM, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Ferrell JE Jr: Disease attributed to Mycobacterium chelonae in South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Compar. Med. 50:675-679, December 2000.
  38. Griffith DE, Brown BA, Girard WM, Griffith BE, Couch LA, Wallace RJ Jr: Azithromycin-containing regimens for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:1547-1553, June 2001.
  39. Bange F-C, Brown BA, Smaczny C, Wallace RJ Jr, Böttger EC: Lack of transmission of Mycobacterium abscessus among patients with cystic fibrosis attending a single clinic. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:1648-1650, June 2001.
  40. Wilson RW, Steingrube VA, Böttger EC, Springer B, Brown-Elliott BA, Vincent V, Jost KC Jr., Zhang Y, Garcia MJ, Chiu SH, Onyi GO, Rossmoore H, Nash DR, Wallace RJ Jr: Mycobacterium immunogenum sp. nov., a novel species related to Mycobacterium abscessus and associated with clinical disease, pseudo-outbreaks and contaminated metalworking fluids: an international cooperative study on mycobacterial taxonomy. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:1751-1764, 2001.
  41. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Blinkhorn R, Crist CJ, Mann LB: Successful treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium chelonae infection with linezolid. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:1433-1434, October 2001.
  42. Meyers H, Brown-Elliott BA, Moore D, Curry J, Truong C, Zhang Y, Wallace RJ Jr: An outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infection following liposuction. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:1500-1507, June, 2002.
  43. Wallace RJ Jr, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott BA, Yakrus MA, Wilson RW, Mann L, Couch L, Girard WM, Griffith DE: Repeat positive cultures in Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease after macrolide therapy represent new infections in patients with nodular bronchiectasis. J. Infect. Dis. 186:266-273, July, 2002.
  44. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown-Elliott BA, Hall L, Roberts G, Wilson RW, Mann LB, Crist CJ, Chiu SH, Dunlap R, Garcia MJ, Bagwell JT, Jost KC Jr: Clinical and laboratory features of Mycobacterium mageritense. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:2930-2935, August 2002.
  45. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown-Elliott BA, Crist CJ, Mann L, Wilson RW: Comparison of the in vitro activity of the glycylcycline tigecycline (formerly GAR-936) with those of tetracycline, minocycline, and doxycycline against isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 46:3164-3167, October 2002.
  46. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Crist CJ, Mann L, Wilson RW: Comparison of in vitro activities of gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin against four taxa of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:3283-3285, October 2002.
  47. El Sahly HM, Septimus E, Soini H, Septimus J, Wallace RJ, Pan X, Williams-Bouyer N, Musser JM, Gravis EA: Mycobacterium simiae pseudo-outbreak resulting from a contaminated hospital water supply in Houston, Texas. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:802-807, October 2002.
  48. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Clinical and taxonomic status of pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:716-746, October 2002.
  49. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Microbiology MB- 02-6 (MB-307), Disseminated infections caused by a newly described species of Nocardia. Am. Soc. Clin. Pathol. 45(6):89-105, October, 2002.
  50. Wallace RJ Jr, Zhang Y, Wilson RW, Mann L, Rossmoore H: Presence of a single genotype of the newly described species Mycobacterium immunogenum in industrial metalworking fluids associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:5580-5584, November 2002.
  51. Woods GL, Williams-Bouyer N, Wallace RJ Jr, Brown-Elliott BA, Witebsky FG, Conville PS, Plaunt M, Hall G, Aralar P, Inderlied C: Multisite reproducibility of results obtained by two broth dilution methods for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:627-631, February 2003.
  52. Moylett EH, Pacheco SE, Brown-Elliott BA, Perry TR, Buescher ES, Birmingham MC, Schentag JJ, Gimbel JF, Apodaca A, Schwartz MA, Rakita RM, Wallace RJ Jr: Clinical experience with linezolid for the treatment of Nocardia infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:313-318, February 2003.
  53. Olivier KN, Weber DJ, Wallace RJ Jr, Faiz AR, Lee J-H, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott BA, Handler A, Wilson RW, Schechter MS, Edwards LJ, Chakraborti S, Knowles MR, for the Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Study Group. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: I: Multicenter prevalence study in cystic fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167:828-834, March 2003.
  54. Tiwari TSP, Ray B, Jost KC Jr., Rathod MK, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott BA, Hendricks K, Wallace RJ Jr: Forty years of disinfectant failure: Outbreak of postinjection Mycobacterium abscessus infection caused by contamination of benzalkonium chloride. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:954-962, April 2003.
  55. Brown-Elliott BA, Crist CJ, Mann LB, Wilson RW, Wallace RJ Jr: In vitro activity of linezolid against slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:1736-1738, May 2003.
  56. Woods GL, Brown-Elliott BA, Desmond EP, Hall GS, Heifets L, Pfyffer GE, Ridderhof JC, Wallace RJ Jr, Warren NG, Witebsky FG: Susceptibility testing of mycobacteria, nocardia, and other aerobic actinomycetes; approved standard. NCCLS, 23:M24-A, 2003.
  57. .Griffith DE, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Thrice-weekly clarithromycin-containing regimen for treatment of Mycobacterium kansasii lung disease: Results of a preliminary study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:1178-1182, November 2003.
  58. Zhang Y, Mann LB, Wilson RW, Brown-Elliott BA, Vincent V, Iinuma Y, Wallace RJ Jr: Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates from the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:119-125, January 2004.
  59. Schinsky MF, Morey RE, Steigerwalt AG, Douglas MP, Wilson RW, Floyd MM, Butler WR, Daneshvar MI, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr, McNeil MM, Brenner DJ, Brown JM: Taxonomic variation in the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex: description of Mycobacterium boenickei sp. nov., Mycobacterium houstonense sp. nov., Mycobacterium neworleansense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium brisbanense sp. nov. and recognition of Mycobacterium porcinum from human clinical isolates. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:1653-1667, March 2004.
  60. Patel JB, Wallace RJ Jr., Brown-Elliott BA, Taylor T, Imperatrice C, Leonard DGB, Wilson RW, Mann L, Jost KC, Nachamkin I: Sequence-based identification of aerobic actinomycetes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:2530-2540, June 2004.
  61. Nelson KG, Griffith D, Wallace RJ Jr: Pulmonary mycobacterial disease - the role of surgical resection. Clin. Pulm. Med. 11:355-362 , November 2004.
  62. Zhang Y, Yakrus MA, Graviss EA, Williams-Bouyer N, Turenne C, Kabani A, Wallace RJ Jr: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis study of Mycobacterium abscessus isolates previously affected by DNA degradation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:5582-5587, December 2004.
  63. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown-Elliott BA, Wilson RW, Mann L, Hall L, Zhang Y, Jost KC Jr, Brown JM, Kabani A, Schinsky MF, Steigerwalt AG, Crist CJ, Roberts GD, Blacklock Z, Tsukamura M, Silcox V, Turenne C: Clinical and laboratory features of Mycobacterium porcinum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:5689-5697, December 2004.
  64. Conger NA, O’Connell R, Laurel V, Olivier K, Graviss EA, Williams-Bouyer N, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott B, Wallace RJ Jr. Mycobacterium simiae outbreak associated with a hospital water supply. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 25:1050-1055, December 2004.
  65. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. In: Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Sixth Edition, Mandell, Bennett, Dolin, eds, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone Inc., Vol. 2, 251:2909-2916, 2005.
  66. Nash KA, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Molecular basis of intrinsic macrolide resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55:170-177, 2005.
  67. Griffith DE, Brown-Elliott BA, Shepherd S, McLarty J, Griffith L, Wallace RJ Jr: Ethambutol ocular toxicity in treatment regimens for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172:250-253, 2005.
  68. Wallace RJ Jr, Brown-Elliott BA, Brown J, Steigerwalt AG, Hall L, Woods G, Cloud J, Mann L, Wilson R, Crist C, Jost KC Jr, Byrer DE, Tang J, Cooper J, Stamenova E, Campbell B, Wolfe J, Turenne C: Polyphasic characterization reveals that the human pathogen Mycobacterium peregrinum type II belongs to the bovine pathogen species Mycobacterium senegalense. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:5925-5935, 2005.
  69. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr: Rapidly growing mycobacteria. In: Tuberculosis & Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, 5th edition, D Schlossberg, ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 35:451-462, 2006.
  70. Brown-Elliot BA, Brown JM, Conville PS, Wallace RJ Jr: Clinical and laboratory features of the Nocardia spp. based on current molecular taxonomy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:259-282, 2006.
  71. Griffith DE, Brown-Elliott BA, Langsjoen B, Zhang Y, Pan X, Girard W, Nelson K, Caccitolo J, Alvarez J, Shepherd S, Wilson R, Graviss EA, Wallace RJ Jr: Clinical and molecular analysis of macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 174:928-934, 2006.
  72. Nash KA, Andini N, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr.: Intrinsic macrolide resistance in rapidly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:3476-3478, October 2006.
  73. Vera-Cabrera L, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr., Ocampo-Candiani J, Welsh O, Choi SH, Molina-Torres CA: In vitro activities of the novel oxazolidinones DA-7867 and DA-7157 against rapidly and slowly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:4027-4029, December 2006.
  74. Tortoli E, Galli L, Anderbirhan T, Baruzzo S, Chiappini E, de Martino M, Brown-Elliott BA: The first case of Mycobacterium sherrisii disseminated in a child with AIDS. AIDS. 21:1496-1498, 2007.
  75. Butler WR, Sheils CA, Brown-Elliott BA, Charles N, Colin AA, Gant MJ, Goodill J, Hindman D, Toney SR, Wallace RJW Jr., Yakrus MA: First isolation of Segniliparus rugosus from patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:3449-3452, 2007.
  76. Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, Catanzaro A, Daley C, Gordin F, Holland SM, Horsburgh R, Huitt G, Iademarco MF, Iseman M, Olivier K, Ruoss S, von Reyn CF, Wallace RJ Jr., Winthrop K, on behalf of the American Thoracic Society Mycobacterial Disease Subcommittee: An official ATS/IDSA statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175:367-417, 2007.
  77. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr.: Mycobacterium: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of rapidly growing mycobacteria. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th Edition, P.R. Murray, ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C. Volume 1, 38-589-600, 2007.
  78. Conville PS, Brown JM, Steigerwalt AG, Brown-Elliott BA, Witebsky FG: nocardia wallacei sp. nov. and Nocardia blacklockiae sp. nov., human pathogens and members of the "Nocardia transvalensis" complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:1178-1184, 2008.
  79. Winschmann A, Armien A, Harris NB, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr., Rasmussen J, Willette M, Wolf T: Disseminated panniculitis in a botlenose dolphin (Tursips truncatus) due to Mycobacterium chelonae infection. J. Zoo Wild. Med. 39:412-420, 2008.
  80. Nash KA, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr. A novel gene, erm(41), confers inducible macrolide resistance to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus but is absent from Mycobacterium chelonae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:1367-1376, 2009.
  81. Zelazny AM, Root JM, Shea YR, Colombo RE, Shamputa IC, Stock F, Conlan S, McNulty S, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr., Oliver KN, Holland SM, Sampaio EP: Cohort study of molecular identificatioin and typing of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium massiliense, and Mycobacterium bolletii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:1985-1995, 2009.
  82. Forbes BA, Banaiee N, Beavis K, Brown-Elliott BA, Della Latta P, Elliott LB, Hall GS, Hanna B, Perkins MD, Siddiqi SH, Wallace RJ Jr, Warren NG: Laboratory detection and identtification of mycobacteria; Approved guideline. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, M4-A, 2008.
  83. Brown-Elliott BA, Cohen S, Wallace RJ Jr.: Susceptibility testing of mycobacteria. In: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Protocols, R Schwalbe, L Steele-Moore, AC Goodwin, eds. CRC Press, Boca Ration, FL 11:243-274, 2007.
  84. Wallace RJ Jr., Griffith DE: Antimycobacterial agents. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th edition, AS Fauci, DL Kasper, DL Longo, E. Braunwalld, SL Hauser, JL Jameson, J Loscalzo, eds. McGraw HIll. 161:1032-1038, 2008.
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